Working Smarter Guide: Staying Financial

Disclaimer : The information given here is a simple guide. Specific advice regarding your finances, taxes, insurances and superannuation must be from a certified professional only.

You are an artist and a business. You’re an independent design professional. Set up your design business properly so you can take control of your income, manage your finances and secure your future.

There are four ways of structuring your design business: as a sole trader, partnership, company or trust. Each structure has its pros and cons, and you should consult with your accountant before deciding which structure suits your individual circumstances.

Live performance designers who earn a high income or work more in the commercial sector, and many film designers, choose to set up their own company as a tax-effective business strategy. You should seek professional advice before considering forming a company, trust or partnership. Be aware that each option has legal and taxation ramifications.

Tips & Tricks

  • ‘Finding the right tax agent with industry-relevant experience is important, and it’s a personal decision. Ask other designers and colleagues in the Arts for trusted recommendations, then meet with the agent to see how they can help you.’

Personal Services Income (PSI)

If you are set up as a company, trust or partnership, PSI rules may apply. Personal Services Income is income produced mainly from your personal skills or efforts as an individual. Income is classified as PSI when more than 50% of the amount you received for a contract was for your labour, skills or expertise.

Within this category, you are unable to claim certain expenses as a trading entity would. The rules are very specific so speak with your accountant regarding what you can and cannot claim.

Tips & Tricks

  • ‘Work out who you are, and what you can offer that is authentic to your sense of who you are’
  • Creative Plus Business is a wonderful resource for all things creative business.’
  • ‘I have found it beneficial to have a longer-term business plan, but then break it down into 12-week action plans – 12 weeks seems more manageable to commit to’
  • ‘Even if your first ‘business plan’ is just a few dot points with a date, it will give you a point of reference in six months or a year when you look back and are ready to reevaluate and plan the next step’
  • ‘Consciously evaluate your career path regularly (every year) to see if you are heading where you want to go’
  • ‘My first business plan was simple – just five columns: goals; indicators; where I am now; where I want to be in X months time; and how do I get there?’
  • ‘Be prepared to diversify early – parallel and related careers sustain many designers and enrich their practice’
  • ‘You are not alone – business planning resources have a lot of great information and are yours to use. You don’t have to invent the wheel yourself.’
  • ‘Expect ups and downs’
  • ‘It’s a competitive world, so I had to think about my particular skills and areas of expertise for my personal ‘business model’
  • ‘Personally I have found it the most beneficial to have a longer business plan but then break it down into 12-week action plans. 12 weeks seems more manageable to commit to. This Creative Plus Business resource has been useful.’

If you are set up as a company, trust or partnership, PSI rules may apply. Personal Services Income is income produced mainly from your personal skills or efforts as an individual. Income is classified as PSI when more than 50% of the amount you received for a contract was for your labour, skills or expertise.

Within this category, you are unable to claim certain expenses as a trading entity would. The rules are very specific so speak with your accountant regarding what you can and cannot claim.

Working as a Sole Trader

Most (72%) live performance designers work as sole traders.

(APDG survey 2018)

When you are working as a ‘sole trader’ you are running your own business and are responsible for understanding your own tax, insurance and superannuation obligations. All records that relate to your work need to be kept by you. You need an ABN (Australian Business Number) and pay tax using your tax file number (TFN).

You may be simultaneously working different jobs as a sole trader, as well as an employee or contractor. At times you may choose to work for an employer full-time, part time or as a casual employee, earning income in the form of a salary or as a fee.

Advantages of being a sole trader:

  • This is the way most live performance designers work, as it is the simplest, cheapest and most flexible business structure.
  • It offers the flexibility to engage with the employer/company on your own terms, negotiated by contract.
  • The employer/company pays the ’employer superannuation contribution’ (Superannuation Guarantee) into your nominated superannuation account.
  • The company provides workers compensation and public liability insurances when you are at work on their premises. (NOTE: some organisations are attempting to avoid this obligation).
  • Depending on your contract:
    • You can work on various projects with multiple employers at the same time.
    • You can work when and where you like (eg. take Mondays off for caring duties or to do a training course).
    • You can find your own clients, initiate projects and approach other creatives as yourself.

Disadvantages of being a sole trader:

  • You’re your own finance department. In most cases, you must manage your own tax and financial record-keeping.
  • You will need to negotiate and sign a new contract for each work project.
  • You need to manage cash flow carefully to ensure you have available funds to pay tax.
  • You might need to provide a Fee Proposal as part of your contract for the design work you are undertaking.
  • You need to invoice, and may be required to provide a timesheet. You may need to follow up when invoices aren’t paid on time – which happens too often.
  • Your income will be variable, compared with being on a part-time or full-time salary.

Sole Traders and your TFN

Use your individual Tax File Number to lodge your tax return. If you have worked as both an employee and sole trader, there will be two sections of the tax return that will need to be filled in. A tax agent will help you with this.

You can use this ATO calculator to estimate your tax obligations:

Tips & Tricks

  • ‘You need to know when to move on – when you need to say ‘no’ to designing another co-op, or working as an assistant, or when your association with a particular artist or company has run its course’
  • ‘If you are pitching to a company, make sure you like their work’
  • ‘Volunteer for something: join your guild, a writer’s group etc. Opportunities often come from making these genuine connections’
  • ‘Give yourself one goal for each job that you believe will make saying ‘yes’ worth it. For example, what is one thing you would like to learn from/on this job?’
  • ‘Imagine your CV in 5 years – what would you like it to look like? How can you work to achieve this?’

As an individual sole trader you can be employed as either an ‘employee’ or as a ‘contractor’. By using the ATO’s ‘Difference between Employees and Contractors’ tool, the APDG advises that Live Performance designers are typically determined to be Employees rather than Contractors under Australian law. There could be a time in your career where you decide it is more appropriate to define yourself as Contractor.

As an ‘employee’ you may be paid by a regular weekly or fortnightly salary with tax deducted, or paid by fee instalments where you pay your own tax. You may be employed full time, part time or as a casual employee.  This is becoming less of a choice over time and the ATO ‘Difference between Employees and Contractors’  tool is  a good method to determine where you sit in each situation.

As a contractor you are essentially working completely independently of any client/company. The term ‘contractor’ is a term defined by tax and superannuation law. Even if you have your own ABN and are working under a contract or agreement – as most designers do – that doesn’t mean you are technically a ‘contractor’.

Designers need to be aware that tax and superannuation law changes may affect how you work.  For example some companies are now attempting to define designers as ‘contractors’ and are arguing that they are therefore not obligated to pay superannuation or cover the designer’s insurances. The APDG does not believe this is a legitimate action. If in doubt, speak to your accountant and they can determine which area you fall into and suggest ways to negotiate with the employer/business you’re contracted to. Some great accountants will even discuss it with the employer/business on your behalf to get the desired outcome.

  • It is illegal for an employer to incorrectly treat their employee as a contractor and to withhold worker entitlements and employer super contributions.
  • The APDG  recommends that designers (other than those who are registered as a Company for tax purposes) should refer to themselves as ‘independent design professionals’ and not refer to themselves as ‘contractors’, to avoid confusion about employer obligations.
  • The APDG recommends that all designers should consult with an accountant and familiarise themselves with the ATO definitions of contractor and employee, as your circumstances and the law can change.

“To know whether a worker is an employee or contractor, you need to look at the whole working arrangement and examine the specific terms and conditions.

Businesses and workers will sometimes include specific words in a written contract to say that the working arrangement is contracting in the mistaken belief that this will make the worker a contractor at law.

If a worker is legally an employee, a contract specifying the worker is a contractor makes no difference and will not:

1. override the employment relationship or change the worker into a contractor

2. change the PAYG withholding and super obligations a business is required to meet.

Whether a worker is an employee or contractor is not a matter of choice, but depends entirely on the working arrangement and the specific terms and conditions.”

ATO source: Myths and Facts


Working as an Employee

While resident company designers would most likely be employed by the company full time, most live performance designers working as an employee would technically be employed as a casual employee. (NOTE: The legal definition of casual employment may change).

Whether your employment is full time, part time or casual, your contract should be negotiated so you agree to all the terms of your employment before you commence work.

You might be working simultaneously under a number of contracts at any time.

Your contract should define your employee working conditions, wages/fee, tax contributions and expense claims. The company may stipulate deadlines and specific dates and hours to be worked, and can direct the tasks and projects you need to complete and how you should work. They may also stipulate company policies and procedures which you need to comply with. Employment and financial records relating to your work within a company may be administered by them, but you should manage them and always keep records.

Advantages of being an employee:

  • You may have the opportunity to contribute to company meetings, and to company decisions and future projects.
  • If the employer is making tax contributions on your behalf, with tax deducted from your pay, they will provide a financial record electronically through Single Touch Payroll (STP) finalisation. This report goes directly to the ATO. With this system, you will need to log into your MyGov account to see what used to be called your ‘payment summary’.
  • The employer procedurally pays the employee a superannuation contribution (Superannuation Guarantee Contribution – SGC) into your nominated superannuation fund.
  • As negotiated in your contract or workplace agreement, and if you are employed as a part time or full time employee, the employer must accrue annual leave and sick leave on your behalf. As a casual employee, annual leave and sick leave do not accrue.
  • As a casual employee, after 12 months of consistent hours the employer must offer you a permanent position. You can refuse this offer and remain casual. If you are fortunate enough to keep your casual position for 7 years, you are entitled to receive long service leave calculated at a pro rata rate.
  • The employer procedurally covers the employee under the company’s Workers Compensation and Public Liability insurance policies.
  • Expenses such as parking, cab charges, art materials, etc can be negotiated to be covered by the employer.
  • You will be able to access company resources. For example, suppliers may come to the company to demonstrate or show samples – take advantage of this opportunity and build your own product library, etc.
  • You may be given a place to work, with access to company computers, printers and networks.
  • As a casual employee you are still able to find your own clients, and approach other creatives independent from the company or companies employing you, however, check your contract for any constraints your employer may have put in your contract regarding this.

Disadvantages of being an employee:

  • It may be less flexible – the company potentially has more say in how you work. Required hours of attendance, compliance with company policies and other employer stipulations should be agreed in your contract before work commences, regardless of your employment status.
  • If the employer makes tax contributions on your behalf, the contribution rate will not take into account personal business deductions for which you may qualify, however this can be addressed at the end of the financial year when you complete your tax return.
  • Depending on your salary or fee payment schedule you may have limited opportunities to negotiate payments to suit your cash flow.

Working as a Contractor

As a ‘contractor’ you are a much more independent worker – you quote on the job, you can subcontract the work to another person, you are free to accept or refuse extra work, and you can do the work any way and anytime you like as long as the work is completed to an agreed standard or under the contract terms. You are responsible for completing the work within the set time and for fixing any mistakes at your own expense.

In practice, live performance designers’ contracts stipulate much more employer control over the way we work than would apply to other contractors, which is why the APDG argues that live performance designers are unlikely to be classified as contractors.

Advantages of working as a Contractor:

  • More flexibility. You can take on clients and contracts and arrange work schedules to suit you.
  • You can subcontract the work to another person. For, example you could get a CAD expert to complete technical documentation.
  • You can work according to your own preferences.

Disadvantages of working as a Contractor:

  • You pay your own superannuation.
  • You cover all your own insurances.
  • You are responsible for fixing any mistakes at your own expense.
  • You cover all work expenses yourself.
  • You usually provide all your own tools and equipment.

Tips & Tricks

  • ‘I have a personal bank account and a business account – at tax time this makes it so much easier’
  • ‘I look out for training opportunities within the company employing me – eg courses in 3D CAD, diversity training, project management, OH&S training, etc…’
  • ‘I learn from the company contacts and systems, such as useful apps, spreadsheets and budget breakdowns for future work.’
  • ‘A lot of commercial design companies use Google Workspace (which includes Google Docs etc.) as a complete business system under one roof.’
  • ‘Turn all your admin into a ‘system of working’ – when you invoice make sure that all the details of the invoice are turned into tasks you need to complete.’
  • ‘Sole traders within a company might not be part of the formal hierarchy so you are more free to talk to whoever you want.’
  • ‘I make sure that all my hours are included on the timesheet and invoices so the company knows how many hours designing really takes’.
  • ‘Even when I agree to a set fee at the start, I include all my hours on the invoice. If I end up doing unpaid hours I then add a line at the end with the “discount”. I think it’s best to inform others of how long tasks take and it’s also good for my records so I can charge the appropriate amount next time’ (See the APDG Live Performance Design Guidelines for an indication of renumeration rates)

When you register as a business you formalise your design business and identify that it is a serious undertaking and not a hobby. In a simple online process you register a business name and are given a unique 11 digit Australian Business Number (ABN). You keep financial records and account books, and it is recommended that you keep a separate ‘business’ bank account for your income. An ABN identifies your business to the community and to the government. It also identifies your business to the ATO (Australian Tax Office) when dealing with your tax obligations, such as claiming deductions for business expenses. If you are registered for GST, you will pay GST by completing a quarterly Business Activity Statement (BAS).

After your first tax return, if you have a tax debt, you will likely go into the Pay As You Go Instalments (PAYGI) scheme. The ATO developed this scheme to assist businesses to pay their tax. The ATO calculates an instalment amount that you need to pay through your quarterly BAS (if registered), or they will send you a form with the instalment amount filled in. It catches a lot of businesses by surprise and cash flow can be really tight that first year, as not only do they have the tax debt from the tax return but they will also have the instalment amount payable very quickly for the following year’s tax return. If you know that you will end up with a tax debt at the end of the financial year, ensure you save extra for the following year’s instalment as well. This is where a great accountant can assist with your planning.

APDG Recommendation

Whether you refer to yourself as a ‘freelance designer’ or ‘sole trader’; whether you work as an employee or as a contractor; work full time, part time, or casual; if you’re paid by fortnightly salary or fee instalments – we believe it is best to consider yourself as an independent design professional and develop good business habits and systems that help you manage and take responsibility for your professional life. Treat your design work as a business.

In the early stages of your career this approach can seem daunting, however in the long-term you will benefit from developing a ‘sole trader business mindset’. The APDG is here to offer support during your professional development.

A Fair Income

Don’t undervalue your skills. You can benchmark yourself by establishing a useful point of comparison as a reference point (a performance benchmark). You will have a fair idea of the value of your work in relation to other professionals. You can also refer to the APDG Live Performance Design Guidelines.

If for any reason you agree to work for less than the industry minimum, be very careful to not make this a precedent for either yourself or your employer, as this may negatively affect you and your peers.

In an APDG survey, 70% of set, costume and lighting designers stated that someone designing both set and costumes would need to design more than 6 productions a year to gain a fair income. Specialist set, costume, lighting or video designers may need to design up to double this number of productions to gain a fair income.

Minimum wage

The Australian national minimum wage is $772.60 per week, or $20.33 per hour (1 July 2021 figures). Read more on

The MEAA minimum wage for theatre actors (2020 figure) is $1145.70 per week and can be used as a benchmark for live performance designers. Read more from MEAA.

You might prefer to benchmark yourself against other design industries. The APDG Guidelines provide useful wage benchmarking and minimum wage calculations. You can also benchmark yourself against others working in similar roles on the same project, for example your director or co-designers.

Hourly Rates

However you are paid, you are being paid for your talent, skills and for your time. Establish an hourly and/or weekly rate that feels fair to you and calculate how many hours of work at that rate your fee or salary equates to. See the time management section.

Your hourly rate should increase with your level of experience. You might have different hourly or weekly rates for other design roles you work in, such as when you work as a scenic artist or buyer, or when you work in film versus working in live performance.

If you are working as a sole trader or other entity, you also need to take into account your business running costs, superannuation and any other expenses. Add these costs to your hourly rate to ensure you don’t fall below the minimum wage. If you are a contractor, the business you are contracting to has an obligation to ensure that you don’t fall below the minimum wage.

How you are paid

There are 5 ways you can receive income as an independent design professional:

  1. as a fee
  2. as a salary
  3. as a royalty
  4. by profit share
  5. in kind (as a service in lieu of payment)

Different employers have preferences about how they will pay you, and you will have your own preferences too. From one project to the next you might be paid differently, sometimes with a royalty payment added on to any of these (if included in your contract).

1. Fee

This is the negotiated payment you receive for an individual project. This is how most live performance designers are paid.

  • Your fee and fee instalment schedule is negotiated and stipulated in your contract.
  • The fee may be paid in one lump sum, or split across instalments which may be tied to deliverables such as initial design, design presentation, and opening night.
  • You (or your agent) provide an invoice for the next fee installment due.
  • Companies vary widely on fee levels for comparative work – from sector to sector, between design roles (eg set versus costume design) and even vary from state to state.
  • Employees and contractors may receive payment by fee.
  • For a scale of indicative fees appropriate to your level of experience and the complexity of the project see the APDG Guidelines for more detail.

2. Salary

This is a negotiated and contracted payment received as a regular (weekly, fortnightly or monthly) payment. Normally this is under an employment arrangement and tax (PAYG) is deducted with each payment.

  • You technically become an employee of the company for a specified period of time when you are on salary – either full-time, part time or casual,.
  • Smaller companies may prefer to contract you this way (and you may prefer to be contracted this way) as it makes the employment relationship, superannuation and insurance obligations very straightforward.

3. Royalties

This is a negotiated percentage of a production’s ongoing box office income paid to you. Royalties need to be negotiated at the time of contracting. Royalties will be on top of any other payment for the job, and are a payment for your contribution to the ongoing profit of the production.

  • The current industry standard percentage for set, costume and lighting designers is 0.5% (for each discipline), but be prepared to negotiate on this. See Section 4 of the APDG Guidelines for more detail.
  • It is common for royalty payments to commence only after the initial presentation of a production. eg. if a production is remounted or goes on tour.
  • When your contract stipulates a royalty pool this means that a number of the royalty participants (for example all the designers) are grouped together and paid in specified proportions instead of the full royalty. This could make the difference between the project being financially viable or not, as you would receive a smaller royalty overall.

4. Profit Share/Co-op

When working on a profit-share production, consider yourself an investor in the project with payment as a percentage of the overall profits made by the production, negotiated with a written or verbal agreement (preferably written). There are various structures for this:

  • All creatives and performers involved receive an equal share; or,
  • Different people receive different percentages of profit. This often depends on the level of commitment and time spent working on the production.

Important: A profit share situation doesn’t guarantee an income. The risk of the production making a loss may also rest with you.


To be a valid financial document, tax invoices must include at least seven pieces of information – The Australian Tax Office lists what information must be included in your invoices:

  1. Identify that the document is intended to be a tax invoice
  2. Seller’s (designer’s) identity
  3. Seller’s (designer’s) Australian Business Number (ABN)
  4. Date the invoice was issued
  5. Brief description of the items/services sold, including the quantity (if applicable) and the price
  6. GST amount (if any) payable – this can be shown separately or, if the GST amount is exactly one-eleventh of the total price, as a statement which says ‘Total price includes GST’
  7. Identify any item that is tax-exempt

Also consider:

  • Invoices for more than $1000 also need to include the ABN of the person/company you are invoicing.
  • Set up an invoice template that you can reuse. Auspicious Arts provides invoice templates in their client resources.
  • If you don’t have an agent to invoice for you, link the template to an app that keeps track of your hours and issues scheduled invoices for you.
  • Time keeping apps may help, some used by designers include:

Tips & Tricks

  • ‘As soon as I stopped accepting unpaid work, I started to be offered paid work.’
  • ‘Have the money conversation first.’
  • ‘It’s ok if it’s just a ‘money job’, just adjust your expectations.’ (not everything needs to be a ‘passion project’)
  • ‘I have several income streams. I keep a lot of pots on the boil, so I am not relying on any one.’
  • ‘Recognise that flexibility and diversity in your career is constructive, positive and healthy.’
  • ‘Benchmark your fee. What are your director and co-designers being paid? A daily rate for a designer should be no less than a daily rate for an actor.’ (asking others what they’re paid can be tricky, but it’s worthwhile)
  • ‘Work out how many weeks of work your fee or salary corresponds to, and plan your time for the number of paid weeks.’
  • ‘Have a look at the APDG Live Performance Guidelines table of fees before you negotiate your contract.’
  • ‘Talk to other designers for advice before you negotiate your fee, especially with an employer you haven’t worked with before.’
  • ‘Work out how many instalments you want your fee to be paid over, and negotiate the timing of these to suit your cash flow. I want more of my payment up front so I negotiate this.’
  • ‘Specify that you want to be paid within two weeks, but understand that in the commercial world it might be as much as 90 day terms.’
  • ‘I prefer 4 fee instalments, with more of the fee paid early.’
  • ‘Invoicing – use accounting software that will send clients/companies automated reminders to pay invoices. This takes the personal (emotion) out of it when trying to chase up payment. Find the one that’s right for you: here are some ‘free’ options.’

Self-Generated Projects

Think about the projects you want to initiate, or the skills you want to exercise, and how these can generate an income. It takes a long time and a lot of effort to set up independent projects – they often have complex artistic and administration requirements, but can be very rewarding.

Think about selling your designs, drawings, and other creative work online. Be sure to check your contract and Intellectual Property (IP) rights if thinking of selling work related to projects produced by others. For example, if you’re a costume illustrator, you can sell figurative drawings that aren’t related to productions.

Helpful resources for planning:


Self-generated and independent projects may be supported by a grant. Many of the grant bodies have seminars and workshops to assist with the grant application process. Consider employing a grant-writer to assist your application.

Tips & Tricks

  • ‘If you apply for six grants, you may get one (or none, and that’s ok – just have to try again).’
  • ‘Consider the time you might spend applying for a grant, and factor that into your project timeline.’
  • ‘Consider the time you might spend applying for a grant, and how those hours could be spent creating your project.’
  • ‘A grant doesn’t need to be a solo effort. If you can, involve your collaborators through the whole process. However, sometimes you have to take on that workload, and that may be your key contribution to the project.’

Other ‘Non-Design’ Income Sources

The APDG 2018 survey found that most designers (78%) have sources of income other than their professional theatre work, with 24% earning up to a third of their income this way. Like any artist, there are times when you might need to supplement your income from outside your field.

Design skills are broad, and very transferable. Alternate income can come from working as: a design assistant, draftsperson, model maker, props maker, teacher, graphic designer, arts tutor, event designer, buyer, costume-maker, art-finisher, scenic artist and on-set crew for film. As a lighting or video designer you may be able to work as a technician, programmer, or other crew member.

Tips & Tricks

  • ‘Working outside of your primary skill-set is a valuable way of maintaining a sustainable career. Be comfortable with it – very few designers make their total income from their design practice.’
  • ‘If you work in a casual job outside of live performance, be upfront and discuss your need for flexibility with your employer. This will help maintain a good relationship so you can go back to that employment when you need it.’
  • ‘I look for ‘second’ jobs that give me a degree of flexibility, so they don’t interfere with my design work’
  • ‘I have put together a ‘one-pager’ for clients that outlines my rates for all the different kinds of work that I do. Having it as a formal document makes it more business-like and less personal’
  • ‘I consider that my “second job” helps me gain skills to develop my main career path.’
  • ‘Think outside the square when choosing a ‘second job’.’
  • ‘Where possible, I use my second job to practice and develop skills to support my design practice. Sometimes that means adapting the job you find yourself in – trying to value-add to it of course!’


You may occasionally see a local, state or federal government agency calling for tenders on a significant arts project. Each tender will set quite specific rules that regulate how the tender document must be drawn up, and rules for the tendering process itself.

If you are planning on submitting a tender you are advised to familiarise yourself with the terms and conditions that are standard for a tender agreement. The Standards Australia website links you to the purchase of standard agreements. The tender advertisement will also link you to relevant documents and regulations.

  • Tenders are competitive, and big companies tend to do better at them.
  • Look for opportunities with people you associate with, and in related disciplines such as architecture or exhibition design. Your skills may be complimentary or you may fill gaps in each others’ strengths.
  • You are more likely to succeed when you are invited to tender, or are tendering as part of a larger team or organisation.
  • You may have more success if collaborating with established companies.

Scholarships, Grants and Residencies

There are a small number of specialised scholarships for live performance designers. Grants and residencies are also an option for funding the development of new work.

Tips & Tricks

  • ‘Keep your eye open for special grants, for example in response to COVID.’
  • ‘You may need to apply more than once for a residency or scholarship. It’s hard, but don’t let rejection get you down. These can be highly competitive and subjective. Ask for feedback when possible (sometimes they just can’t), and give it another go.’

Tips & Tricks

  • ‘If the offer is beneficial to both you and the co-op it may be worth it. If it’s only beneficial to the other person/group, it’s probably not.’
  • ‘Identify what support you require to deliver the expected design work e.g. assistance with sourcing, returns, budget management, scenic art etc.’
  • ‘Be wary of the carrot, “once we start making money we’ll pay you”’.
  • ‘Be OK when it is just a ‘money job’, and adjust your expectations’
  • ‘Make sure to ask if the whole team is part of the co-op/deferred payments, or if some members are being paid or paid in advance. There may be room to negotiate’

It’s a small thing – literally – but petty cash needs to be managed. You want to avoid bundles of cash, tardy reimbursements and messy reconciliation processes. And most of all, you must avoid spending your own money on the production (although this can be challenging or impossible at times).

Discuss with your Production Manager or Costume Supervisor how they usually run a float/petty cash account. Does this method suit you? Do they have their own reconciliation form set up? Which day/s is the accounts department able to reimburse the float?

There are a few ways it can work:

  • Using the company credit card or cash card. This is ideal, but rare. Keep your own time/date/purchase record to cross-check with the company’s bank statement.
  • A float paid into one of your own bank accounts, PayPal or similar account. The company should transfer the agreed float amount into your bank account at least 2 weeks before you need it (this is also rare). It is a good idea to use a different account to the one you run your business expenses out of, so you can keep these expenses separate. Use your online bank statement to keep a record of purchases. Check it frequently.
  • Cash. With so much online buying, cash floats are no longer practical, except for last-minute purchases and for cash-only sales such as at markets.

There are few golden rules:

  • Keep meticulous records – on a phone app is ideal, where you can photograph and input the receipts as you go.
  • Label receipts as you purchase items and keep them in a zipped waterproof envelope.
  • Cross-check your accounts regularly, especially when you are using multiple accounts for online purchases and doing account transfers.
  • Use clear descriptors of online purchases to make it easy to track every item, especially when you have multiples of similar items (“Kate/shoe/option 3”, rather than “shoes”)
  • Plan big expenses ahead of time and ask the Production Manager or Supervisor to make these purchases on your behalf so you don’t drain your float.
  • Reconcile the float before it runs out, and time the reconciliation to the accounts department’s banking schedule.
  • Know the accounts department personally, so if you have an issue you know who to talk to.

Tips & Tricks

  • ‘Companies are often too disorganised or don’t have the financial infrastructure to give me a petty cash float, meaning I have to spend my own money. All I can do is keep on top of them, know the pay cycle and make sure I have a reimbursement submitted every pay cycle.’

Superannuation is how we save for our retirement. Our employers pay into our nominated fund at a rate set by the government, and we can pay in extra amounts up to limits set by the government. Read more about how it works.

Unless you are earning enough to set up your own self-managed fund, choose a fund that suits you. Before you decide which fund, compare the performance of funds.

Industry funds perform well and are not-for-profit. It is worth comparing the performance of your fund with other funds regularly to check you are getting the best return for your Super investment.

Unless you are working as a contractor or your own registered company, your employer is obligated by law to pay you the employer superannuation contribution (Superannuation Guarantee Contribution – SGC) into your nominated Superannuation account. This should be at the rate of 10.5% (increasing to 12% in 2025). Superannuation should be paid in addition to your fee, not taken out of your fee. If you are not sure of your Superannuation rights, or the company employing you is not sure, read more on the ATO website.

Superannuation contributions depend to some degree on your negotiations with your employer. If they offer you a salary rather than an hourly rate, some employers try to package salary and super together, which is allowable. If you opt for this arrangement, be aware that your salary package may not go up in alignment with future super rate increases – the super contribution will increase and the salary component will decrease. This isn’t illegal, and you need to be aware when negotiating.

You can also pay into your own Super fund as an Employee Contribution, either as Salary Sacrifice or as a direct contribution, up to a total of $25,000 per year. This can be an effective way of tax planning to reduce your taxable income when you have a ‘windfall year’, as well as bolstering your Super account. The allowable direct contribution rates change from year to year, so check on the ATO website or with your accountant before paying extra into super.

The employer should contribute to your Super when:

  • You’re a full time, part time or casual employee under PAYG; or
  • You invoice the employer as a sole trader (specific conditions apply); or
  • You are hired principally for your personal labour or skills

The employer is not required to contribute to your Super when you invoice the employer as a company, trust, or partnership.

You also need to pay Super for anyone you employ. The $450 eligibility cap has been removed so you will need to pay your employee Super regardless of how much they earn.

Tips & Tricks

  • ‘Make sure your Superannuation is on top of your design fee, not included in it.’
  • ‘I wish I had put money into Super!’ (a senior designer looking back with regret)
  • ‘I add Super onto my hourly rate when I am working as an assistant, and itemise it on my invoice so it is “Superclear”.’
  • ‘I add the ATO superannuation link to my invoice if I suspect that my employer does not know they need to pay me super.’
  • ‘I have changed my Super fund four times over the last twenty years to get a better deal. I look for the best performance and new initiatives – like high-performing ethical portfolios.’
  • ‘Remember, companies need to pay into the fund you nominate, not into one they nominate.’
  • ‘Most Super funds will have a way to get a pre-populated ‘choice of fund form’ from their website. This makes it much easier to get Super paid into the fund of your choice.’
  • ‘By allowing a company to NOT pay your Super, you disadvantage the next designer!’
  • provides comparisons of Superannuation providers’ environmental performance.’
  • ‘You can add additional amounts into your super if you choose. I try to do this when I am on a longer term contract. Same goes for paying off a debt such as HECs/FeeHelp.’


It is important to have a cash flow strategy for yourself when there is no work available, or if you are unable to work for health or other reasons. There may be times when you earn more income than you need and times when you don’t earn enough. Consider opening a ‘rainy day’ bank account separate to your main personal and business accounts for times of need.

Work out how much it costs for you to run your business and manage your cost of living. Although these are separate factors, they are interconnected financial considerations. Then work out how long you can survive without an income. This knowledge will prepare you for possible circumstances.

If you need help with this, a good accountant can assist you with working through the break-even point for your business and minimum requirements for personal living.

Consider a part time job to supplement your business income. This allows for  some income certainty whilst still having the opportunity to work for your design passion.

We recommend you keep all documentation related to the topics covered in this section. Even if you dislike filing, put it all in a shoe box. Likewise, in terms of digital documents, archive all the documentation. If in doubt, ‘keep it’.

Tips & Tricks

  • ‘Work and cash flow should be part of your calendar planning. Know when you will be more or less busy throughout the year and how that will affect your ability to spend and save.’
  • ‘Schedule time every three months to review your finances – this coincides with the tax schedule’
  • ‘It is easy to get so busy that you stop looking ahead and don’t think about your future income.’
  • ‘When I can, I put my tax return in my rainy day account.’
  • ‘Many freelance live performance designers also have other income streams such as teaching; it is normal to have a casual or part-time job to supplement your design generated income.’
  • ‘I suggest the app Rounded as a good tool to keep on top of tax/finances.’ (There are many others too, search online to find the one that’s right for you.)


Tips & Tricks

  • ‘When I’ve found myself in a problematic collaborative experience I’ve canvassed options and privately planned an exit strategy, if not actually pressed ‘go’.’
  • ‘I would never go into a conflict resolution meeting alone. Take someone who can back you up and act as a witness’.’
  • ‘When I’ve been through problematic projects I made time afterwards to thoroughly reflect on the situation. I wrote it all out so I got to know my own boundaries better and what to look out for next time. I’ve even organised debriefs with people I trusted on the project – it helped.’

There will be times when you need to validate your contribution and stand up for your professional rights. You do not need to feel that you are alone; there is support if you need it.

You have the right to:

  • Be paid fairly and on time.
  • Receive superannuation, when applicable.
  • Hold intellectual property over your work.
  • Be credited for your work in programs and media representations.
  • Feel safe in your workplace, free from bullying and harassment.
  • Ensure your mental and physical health.
  • Be yourself and be respected for it.

Key Links

Tips & Tricks

  • ‘Join the APDG – your professional guild is here for you!’
  • ‘Seek advice from more experienced professionals, use them as a sounding board or as a mentor to work through the grey areas.’ APDG offers an annual mentorship program for emerging designers: MENTORAPDG 
  • ‘By NOT addressing your concerns, you disadvantage yourself on the next job, and you disadvantage every designer coming after you. We collectively need to make change to be heard and set an acceptable standard.’
  • ‘Ask questions early, and ask specific questions that will improve your working conditions’


The APDG makes its best efforts to make sure all information we post is correct, however Members use this information at their own risk. It is up to each individual to research the validity of resources they use. The APDG accepts no responsibility for information given in external links. Tips and services listed in this resource have been recommended by APDG designers, however their listing in this resource should not be construed as an endorsement by the APDG.